Twelve hooded men hold a permanent place in the nightmares of Bobbi Graff.

It’s a small price to pay, she says, for her work as one of a handful of white Jewish civil rights activists in Miami in the 1940s. It was years before the fight for racial equality would burst into public awareness in the 1960s, but Graff and other reformers were planting its seeds in hostile territory in a deeply segregated part of the South: Miami.

Their work is part of a new book, South of the South: Jewish Activists and the Civil Rights Movement in Miami, 1945-1960.

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